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August 3, 2009

Wind Energy & Wind Turbines Table of Contents

Filed under: Wind Energy — Tags: , , , — admin @ 5:25 pm

1. INTRODUCTION

  • 1.1 Dutch Windmills
  • 1.2 Farm Windmill
  • 1.3 Wind Chargers
  • 1.4 Generation of Electricity for Utilities
  • References

2. ENERGY

  • 2.1 Philosophy
    • 2.1.1  Advantages/Disadvantages of Renewable Energy
    • 2.1.2  Economics
  • 2.2 Definition of Energy and Power
  • 2.3 Fundamentals Concerning Energy
  • 2.4 Energy Dilemna in Light of Laws of Thermodynamics
  • 2.4.1  Conservation
  • 2.4.2  Efficiency
  • 2.5 Exponential Growth
  • 2.6 Use of Fossil Fuels
  • 2.7 Nuclear
  • 2.8 Mathematics of Exponential Growth
  • 2.9 Lifetime of a Finite Resource
  • 2.10 Summary
  • References
  • Problems

3. WIND CHARACTERISTICS

  • 3.1 Global Circulation
  • 3.2 Extractable Limits of Wind Power
  • 3.3 Power in the Wind
  • 3.4 Change in Windspeed with Height
  • 3.5 Wind Direction
  • 3.6 Wind Power Potential
  • 3.7 Wind Maps
  • 3.8 Variations in Power
  • 3.9 Windspeed Histograms
  • 3.10 Duration Curve
  • 3.11 Windspeed Distributions
  • 3.12 General Comments
  • References
  • Problems

4. INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT

  • 4.1 Instrumentation
    • 4.1.1 Cup Anemometer
    • 4.1.2 Propeller Anemometers
    • 4.1.3 Wind Direction
    • 4.1.4 Recorders
  • 4.2 Characteristics of Instruments
  • 4.3 Measurements
  • 4.4 Vegetation Indicators
  • 4.5 Data Loggers
  • References
  • Problems

5. WIND TURBINES

  • 5.1 Drag Device
  • 5.2 Lift Device
  • 5.3 Orientation of Rotor Axis
  • 5.4 Description of System
  • 5.5 Aerodynamics
  • 5.6 Control
    • 5.6.1 Normal Operation
    • 5.6.2 Faults
  • 5.7 Energy Production
    • 5.7.1 Generator Size
    • 5.7.2 Rotor Area and Wind Map
    • 5.7.3 Manufacturer’s Curve
  • 5.8 Calculated Annual Energy
  • 5.9 Innovative Wind Systems
  • 5.10 Applications
    • 5.10.1 Electrical Energy
    • 5.10.2 Mechanical Energy
    • 5.10.3 Thermal Energy
    • 5.10.4 Hybrid Systems
    • 5.10.5 Summary
  • 5.11 Storage
  • References
  • Problems

6. DESIGN OF WIND TURBINES

  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Aerodynamics
  • 6.3 Mathematical Terms
  • 6.4 Analysis of Extractable Power
  • 6.5 Drag Device
  • 6.6 Lift Device
    • 6.6.1 Maximum Theoretical Power
    • 6.6.2 Rotation
  • 6.7 Aerodynamic Performance Prediction
  • 6.8 Measured Power and Power Coefficient
  • References
  • Problems

7. ELECTRICAL ASPECTS

  • 7.1 Fundamentals
    • 7.1.1 Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction
    • 7.1.2 Phase Angle and Power Factor
  • 7.2 Generators
  • 7.3 Induction Generators
  • 7.4 Examples
  • References
  • Problems

8. SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

  • 8.1 Performance
  • 8.2 Measures of Performance
  • 8.3 Performance Reports
    • 8.3.1 California
    • 8.3.2 Windstats
  • 8.4 Performance of Enertech 44
  • 8.5 Performance of Bergey Excel
  • 8.6 Water Pumping
    • 8.6.1 Farm Windmill
    • 8.6.2 Electric to Electric System
  • 8.7 Hybrid
    • 8.7.1 Village Systems
    • 8.7.2 Wind Diesel
  • 8.8 Blade Roughness
  • 8.9 Comments
  • References
  • Problems

9. SITING

  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Long Term Reference Stations
  • 9.3 Site Evaluation For Wind Farms
  • 9.4 Wake and Array Losses
  • 9.5 Digital Maps
  • 9.6 Geographic Information Systems
  • 9.7 Wind Resource Screening
  • 9.8 Wind Power Production
    • 9.8.1 Wind Power for Texas Panhandle
    • 9.8.2 Wind Power for Texas
    • 9.8.2 Wind Power for the United States
  • 9.9 Numerical Models
  • 9.10 Micrositing
  • 9.11 Ocean Winds
  • 9.12 Summary
  • References
  • Geographic Information Systems
  • Problems

10. WIND INDUSTRY

  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 New Wind Industry
    • 10.2.1 Wind Industry 1970-1980
    • 10.2.2 Wind Industry 1980-1990
    • 10.2.3 Wind Industry 1990-2000
    • 10.2.4 Wind Industry 2000-2010
    • 10.2.5 Comments
  • 10.3 Large Wind Turbines
  • 10.4 Small Wind Turbines
  • References
  • Problems

11. INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES

  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Avoided Costs
  • 11.3 Utility Concerns
    • 11.3.1 Safety
    • 11.3.2 Quality Of Power
    • 11.3.3 Connection To The Utility
    • 11.3.4 Ancillary Costs
  • 11.4 Regulations On Installation And Operation
  • 11.5 Environmental
  • 11.6 Politics
  • 11.7 Incentives
  • 11.7.1 United States
  • 11.7.2 Other Countries
  • 11.8 Externalities
  • 11.9 Transmission
  • References
  • Problems

12. ECONOMICS

  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Factors Affecting Economics
  • 12.3 General Comments
  • 12.4 Economic Analysis
    • 12.4.1 Simple Payback
    • 12.4.2 Cost of Energy
    • 12.4.3 Value of Energy
  • 12.5 Life Cycle Costs
  • 12.6 Present Worth and Levelized Costs
  • 12.7 Externalities
  • 12.8 Wind Project Development
  • 12.8.1 Land Owner Considerations
    • 12.8.2 COE Estimation for Wind Farm
  • 12.9 Summary
  • 12.10 Future
  • References
  • Problems

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